Centennial Notes
Home Up Announcements Inventory Introduction Manual Centennial Ideas Centennial Notes Conferences Price List Heritage Society 1898 News Donations Rare Documents Early Images FBHCGA 1999 Seminar IPHC




Dr. Harold D. Hunter

1867: National Holiness Association formed in Vineland, NJ

Since North American Classical Pentecostalism began primarily among American holiness people, it would be difficult to understand the movement without some basic knowledge of the milieu in which it was born. Indeed, for the first decade of this century practically all North American Pentecostals had been active in holiness churches or camp meetings. Most of them were either Methodists, former Methodists, or people from kindred movements that had adopted the Methodist view of the second blessing. They were overwhelmingly Arminian in their basic theology and were strongly perfectionistic in their spirituality and lifestyle.

In the years immediately preceding 1900, American Methodism experienced a major holiness revival in a crusade that originated in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania following the Civil War. Begun in Vineland, N.J in 1867 as the "National Holiness Camp Meeting Association," the holiness movement drew large crowds to its camp meetings, with some services attracting over 20,000 persons. Thousands claimed to receive the second blessing of sanctification in these meetings. Leaders in this movement were Methodists such as Phoebe Palmer, (also a leading advocate of womens' right to minister); John Inskip, a pastor from New York City, and Alfred Cookman a pastor from New Jersey.

From 1867 to 1880, the holiness movement gained increasing force within the Methodist churches as well as in other denominations. During this period, many holiness advocates felt that this movement might revive the churches and bring new life to Christianity worldwide. After 1875, the American holiness movement, influenced by the Keswick emphasis began to stress the pentecostal aspects of the second blessings, some calling the experience "pentecostal sanctification." An entire hymnody was produced which focused on the upper room and a revolutionary "old-time pentecostal power" for those who tarried at the altars. Practically all the hymns of the early Pentecostal movement were produced by holiness writers celebrating the second blessing as both a cleansing and an enduement of power.

The holiness movement enjoyed the support of the churches until about 1880 when developments disturbing to ecclesiastical leaders began to emerge. Among these was a "come-outer" movement led by radicals who abandoned any prospects of renewing the existing churches. Led by such men as John B. Brooks, author of The Divine Church, and Daniel Warner, founder of the "Evening Light" Church of God in Anderson, Indiana, this movement spelled the beginning of the end of the dream of remaking the churches in a holiness image. At the same time, other radicals began promoting such new teachings as "sinless perfection," a strict dress code of outward holiness, "marital purity," and a "third blessing" baptism of fire after the experience of sanctification.

The first Classical Pentecostal churches in the world were produced by the holiness movement prior to 1901 and, after becoming pentecostal, retained most of their perfectionistic teachings. These included the United Holy Church of America (1886), the Church of God in Christ (1897), the Pentecostal Holiness Church (1898), the Church of God with headquarters in Cleveland, Tennessee (1906), and other smaller groups. These churches, which had been formed as "second blessing" holiness denominations, simply added the baptism in the Holy Spirit with glossolalia as "initial evidence" of a "third blessing."

Pentecostal pioneers who had been Methodists included Charles Fox Parham, the formulator of the "initial evidence" theology; William J. Seymour, the pastor of the Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles who spread the movement to the nations of the world; J.H King of the Pentecostal Holiness Church, who led his denomination into the Pentecostal movement in 1907-08; and Thomas Ball Barratt, the father of European Pentecostalism. All of these men retained most of the Wesleyan teaching on entire sanctification as a part of their theological systems. In essence, their position was that a sanctified "clean heart" was a necessary prerequisite to the baptism in the Holy Spirit as evidenced by speaking in tongues.

Other early Pentecostal pioneers from non-Methodist backgrounds accepted the premise of second blessing holiness prior to becoming pentecostals. For the most part, they were as much immersed in holiness experience and theology as their Methodist brothers. These included C. H. Mason (Baptist), of the Church of God in Christ, A.J Tomlinson (Quaker), of the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), B.H Irwin (Baptist) of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, and N.J. Holmes (Presbyterian) of the Tabernacle Pentecostal Church.(1)

1895: Iowa Fire-Baptized Holiness Association Formed by B.H. Irwin

It was through the ministrations of the Iowa Holiness Association that Benjamin Harden Irwin was won to the holiness ranks. Unsatisfied as a lawyer, B.H. Irwin then decided to enter the ministry and was ordained by the Baptist Church. In the early 1890s, Irwin came into contact with one of the "Bands" of the Iowa Holiness Association and was convinced about the reality of the second blessing. The Iowa group formed in 1879.(2)

Irwin devoured the works of John Wesley, but became more interested in John Fletcher, Wesley's successor in the English Methodist Societies. Irwin was especially impressed with John Fletcher's Checks to Antinomianism. According to his reading of Fletcher, many early English Methodists testified to an experience beyond salvation and sanctification which they called "the baptism of burning love."

Should you ask, how many baptisms, or effusions of the sanctifying Spirit are
necessary to cleanse ... I should betray a want of modesty if I brought the Holy
Ghost ... under a rule ... if two or more be necessary, the Lord can repeat them.(3)

Published in Way of Faith by 1895, Irwin constructed the doctrine of a "third blessing" for those who had already been sanctified. This was the baptism of the Holy Ghost and with fire, or simply the baptism of fire. This would be the enduement of power from on high through the Holy Spirit.(4)

Setting aside the Way of Faith and The Guide, J.H. King declared that Irwin's 1899 Live Coals of Fire was the first publication in the nation to teach that the baptism of the Holy Ghost and fire was subsequent to sanctification. While perhaps not imitating the exact turn of phrase, other North Americans preceded Irwin in this basic concept.(5)

In 1895 the controversy in Iowa over the new doctrine [Irwin's third blessing] became so heated that Reid and the older leadership of the Iowa Holiness Association invited Irwin and his followers to disassociate themselves from the organization. Irwin then quickly formed a local chapter of Fire Baptized Holiness Association to counter the negative influence of the older group. The first such organization was effected at Olmitz, Iowa in 1895.(6)

A call was made for a general council of his organization to meet July 28 to August 8, 1898 in Anderson, South Carolina. Irwin designated the Anderson meeting the First General Council of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Association. The government was a totally centralized autocracy with the General Overseer chosen for life. He in turn had absolute power to appoint all state "Ruling Elders," as well as to make all pastoral appointments.(7)

J.H. King would later describe Irwin as a man of brilliant intellectual powers, a magnetic personality, an ardent nature, a bold, fearless soul and a disposition which made it natural and easy for him to throw himself whole-heartedly into any task he might choose to undertake.(8)

Campbell(9) mentions that Irwin being General Overseer for life was included in the discipline passed by the 1898 conference. Although he knew J.H. King served as General Superintendent of the PHC for over 30 years, Campbell struggles with "why any intelligent group would have agreed to it," and then reasons that they had simply become accustomed to Irwin running things this way and felt it quite natural.

The following was included in the Constitution:

We believe also that the baptism of the Holy Ghost is obtainable by a definite act
of appropriating faith on the part of the fully cleansed believer.
We believe also that the baptism with fire is a definite, scriptural experience,
obtainable by faith on the part of the Spirit-filled believers.
We do not believe that the baptism with fire is an experience independent of, or
disassociated from, the Holy Ghost.(10)

Irwin came to teach that beyond the baptism of fire there were other "fiery baptisms" which he designated by chemical names like dynamite, lyddite, and oxidite. The following is an account of a devotee who tried to relate the reception of at least six separate experiences:

August 1st, 1898, I was pardoned of my sins. On the following Sunday at 11
o'clock, God sanctified me wholly. A few days later I received the Comforter.
Later on in October, God gave me the Baptism of fire. The devil, and all the
hosts of hell cannot make me doubt this. When my sister Mattie was married I
fell into a trance, and saw a vision. During services a night or so afterwards, God
showed me that I needed more power for service; so I made my wants known and
prayer being offered my faith took hold of God's promises, and I received the
. A few nights after this I received the definite experience of Lyddite.(11)

It is documented that Charles Fox Parham met up with Fire-Baptized enthusiasts in Topeka upon arriving in 1898 and encountered Irwin himself at some point before 1901. Mr. & Mrs. John Linhirt, Mary Linhirt, and Noah Hershey were part of Irwin's 1899 traveling party that accompanied him to the second general council of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Association (1899).(12) The first two issues of Live Coals of Fire described an 1899 crusade in Moonlight, Kansas hosted by local Fire-Baptized ministers which brought in Irwin, Martin, Porter, and Dull, among others. The initial report covered nearby Abilene. Irwin could have known about tongues-speech through at least Daniel Awrey, but too many gaps exist to detect particular scenarios.(13) Yet to be explored adequately is to what extent Agnes Ozman represents a synthesis of these same influences. Ozman-LaBerge evidenced at least a kinship to Frank Sandford by recounting her time with Dowie, classes at Nyack with Stephen Merritt and an evangelistic excursion into Old Orchard, Maine. This 1890s exposure preceded the rupture between Simpson and Sandford. Menzies argues that Ozman-LaBerge, who affiliated with the Fire-Baptized after Topeka, had Fire-Baptized contact prior to 1900. After her xenolalic pneumabaptism at Bethel Bible College, she was part of a group that started out for Shiloh, Maine but stopped short.(14)

1898: First Pentecostal Holiness Congregation Organized in Goldsboro, NC

Key here was A.B. Crumpler of Clinton, Sampson County, North Carolina. He was a member of the Clinton Methodist Episcopal Church, South, who did not receive the doctrine and experience of sanctification from his home church in North Carolina, but in Bismark, Missouri under the ministry of Beverly Carradine, D.D., during 1890.(15)

He engineered an organizational meeting on May 15, 1897(16) at the Magnolia, North Carolina Methodist Church. About a score of ministers and several dozen laypersons gathered in this small town to organize the North Carolina Holiness Association.

Crumpler bitterly attacked the Methodist church. It is reported that at one time he gave the following description: "the old theatre-going, whiskey-drinking, card-playing, tobacco-using, secret lodge-loving, oyster-frying, ice cream supper, dancing church."(17) And apparently when he preached, his sermons were heard loud and clear. A later head of the PHC, A.H. Butler, described Crumpler as an outstanding orator who seemed to be endowed with an unusual unction and his voice could be heard on a clear night for a distance of 3 to 4 miles.(18)

Crumpler printed his criticism in his The Holiness Advocate, started April 15, 1901 in Lumberton, North Carolina. He was sensitive to charges against the holiness movement, especially in his area. Some of those reports were that these "sanctified preachers carried along women who were emotionally inclined, and when the preachers would slap their hands and jump into the air, these women would yell and scream at the top of their voice." "All of the leaders ... were accused of carrying some kind of magic powers ..." "They (also) said that nobody but poor white people and Negroes would have anything to do with such a religion." " ... and when a preacher started preaching against tobacco he had quit preaching and had gone to meddling ..."(19)

In response Crumpler wrote an article titled "The Church of the Holy Refrigerator." In it he quoted Methodist Episcopal Church Bishop Candler's remarks in which he ridiculed "perfect love" while "theatre-going, card-playing, godless church members showed their approval by laughing aloud, and to think Mr. Candler gets paid $3,500 per year to fight holiness."(20)

Accordingly, after a particularly successful campaign in Goldsboro, Crumpler, who had already officially separated himself from the Methodist church, decided to form a new independent congregation. In response to a call for organization, 13 people, four clergy, nine lay, banded themselves together on November 4, 1898 to form the new organization which they chose to call The Pentecostal Holiness Church.(21) They were not the only holiness group of the time to incorporate the word "pentecostal" into the name of their organization. But Crumpler rejoined the Methodist church, now as a layperson, and the local church eventually disbanded.(22)

1898: Benevolence

Miss Mattie Mallory, an 1889 graduate of Baker University, accepted briefly in 1897 the superintendency of a Fire-Baptized Mission in Winnipeg. Having changed trains in Oklahoma City while encoute to the Canadian assignment and sensing a call to minister to homeless children there, (she quickly responded in August to an invitation from Reuben E. Hershey to conduct a school for orphans and children of evangelists in conjunction with the mission and home he recented had opened on Reno Street.)

A major setback to Miss Mallory's efforts came with the 1900 surprise resignation of B.H. Irwin and the collapse of Fire-Baptized Holiness Association support. She went through a series of Holiness sponsors and by 1909 moved her orphanage of rescue home from Beulah Heights to Bethany. She was joined in this effort by C.B. Jernigan who shaped the new town's charter (of the new town to forbid the sale of liquor and tobacco added to covenants which outlawed motion picture theaters, dance halls and pool halls, public swimming pools and merry-go-rounds, games of chance and the like.) which sought to achieve holiness ideas of moral and civic righteousness.

Miss Mallory had 200 acres designed to use agricultural enterprises to unable the orphanage to be self-sustaining. Her efforts at starting a school evolved into what is now Southern Nazarene University, which occupies land dialogically across 39th Expressway. In 1975, the Children's Convalescent Center of Bethany, successor to the Oklahoma Orphanage, was placed under the custody of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church. (Miss Mallory's children had returned home.)

During 1908 Evangelist G.B. Cashwell opened rescue homes in Winston-Salem to provide a haven for homeless children and in Wilmington to bring "fallen women" out of the city's brothels.(23) Under the leadership of Pastor H.P. Lott of the Oklahoma City First Pentecostal Holiness Church there was started a Rescue Home in 1908.(24)

Falcon Children's Home first accepted children in 1909.

Among the fruits of the Falcon's Children's Homes is the Royal Home in Salemburg, North Carolina which is a special ministry to young women in pregnancy crisis.

Franklin Springs hosted an orphanage from 1919 until 1921. By 1929, Mrs. J.H. Hutchinson had been operating for "some years" the Bethel Rescue Home for Girls in Toronto, Canada.(25)

The Carmen Home in Carmen, Oklahoma was established as a home for aged citizens in 1949. Rev. J.M. Lemmon, Superintendent of the Great Plains Conference, moved his family to Carmen and assumed duties as Administrator of the Carmen Home. The home, which is often at its maximum occupancy of 65, is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Nursing Homes and classified by the State of Oklahoma as an A-1 Nursing Home. After almost 40 years of leadership, Rev. Lemmon resigned as Administrator and was followed in leadership by his oldest son David Lemmon. Rev. J.M. Lemmons remains as the chaplain for the home.

1899: Four Fire-Baptized Holiness Missionaries Travel to Cuba

The missionary impulse manifest itself early in the life of the IPHC. Frank R. Porter who served as FBH Ruling Elder for Tennessee made plans in 1899 to go to Africa. Also going to Africa was W.B. Martin while John E. Dull was headed to Cuba. In December, 1899, John Dull, Sarah M. Payne, Nora Arnolda, and Cornelia Allen set sail on the Cape Fear steamer for Cuba.(26) These FBH compatriots were joined in this missionary thrust by Daniel Awrey who made a 7,100 mile trip in 1899. Awrey who had spoken in tongues in 1890, circled the globe in 1909 and participated in a pentecostal world conference in Europe. Awrey returned to the states to take charge of Emmanuel's Bible School, a holiness school located in Beulah, Oklahoma that produced many members for the PHC. In 1910/11, he was in India and China with Frank Bartleman, an Azusa St. Revival leader. In 1913, Awrey died in Liberia. Ethel E. Goss' The Winds of God (27) gave high marks to Daniel Awrey:

Daniel Awrey was a world-famous Bible teacher, missionary
and traveler.
He was a man of cultivation and charm, but in his trips
around the world, he used little of the abundant offerings
he received for himself. In order to save and give to
others, he bought steerage tickets and arranged to forego
hotels by sitting up in trains at night. By living
austerely, with much fasting, he was able to send
thousands of dollars through the years to missionaries who
were suffering privations in the field.

The first Holiness Church [PHC] Foreign Mission Board was formed in 1904. It was composed entirely of female saints with Mrs. Hannibal Bizzel of Dunn, Secretary and Treasurer.(28) Meanwhile, J.H. King as General Overseer of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church made appeals for "foreign missions"--meaning perspective missionaries and financial support--in the pages of Live Coals.(29)

In 1916, Mrs. Holmes referred to Miss Lucy Jones who had already served 14 years as a missionary to China. In 1906, Miss Effie Mae Glover, a student at the Altamont Bible & Missionary Institute, went to Guatemala and stayed for two years. She returned to the states briefly and agreed to marry Amos Bradley,(30) a graduate of J.O. McClurkan's Nashville and Holmes' Bible schools, on a ship to insure that they would return to Central America. She stayed in Guatemala for 24 years, returning to the states only due to failing health and the Depression. Amos Bradley's xx years (44 by 1962) in Central America(31) accounted for the establishment of several Pentecostal Holiness works in Central America.

Tom J. McIntosh was baptized in the Holy Ghost and spoke in tongues as the Spirit gave evidence in 1907. Before the end of the year he went to China to spread the gospel message with some financial support from the Pentecostal Holiness Church. He also spent time in Jerusalem before returning to the states and publishing a book in 1909 entitled The Life and Trip of T.J. McIntosh and Wife and Little Girl, Around the World. By the end of 1909, he and his wife were in Hong Kong. They worked together there with the A.G. Garrs, Azusa St. veterans.

PH supported the Garrs and one of their own missionaries with the expectation that they already knew the language. However, when this did not happen Cashwell changed his view to say initial evidence tongues were glossolalic while the "gift of tongues" were xenolalic, still meaning permanent xenolalia.

Pentecostal missionaries soon made the painful discovery that there was a difference between what has since been termed xenolalia (speaking in known but unlearned languages) and glossolalia (tongues of angels). Reports that McIntosh and others were unable to communicate to people in their own languages caused considerable discomfort for Southeastern Pentecostals and also elicited a new round of criticism from their opponents. McIntosh had left for China immediately after speaking in tongues, and in what he believed was Chinese, at the Dunn revival. In a subsequent report to the Bridegroom's Messenger, he lamented, "Oh! How we would love to speak to these poor people. Of course, God speaks with our tongues, but not their language."(32)

The teaching on Spirit baptism is modified in Cashwell's inaugural issue of The Bridegroom's Messenger 1:1 (October 1, 1907) where he specifically contrasts xenolalia to learning languages at colleges for the sake of evangelizing the world. He goes on to call the 1 Corinthians 12 "gift of tongues" xenolalic in contrast to initial-evidence tongues(33) Cashwell argued that those like McIntosh who thought they had the gift of tongues were mistaken but pure in their motives. He criticized the disunity that these failures were causing, and called on Pentecostals to pray for those abroad to attain the necessary gift. As for himself, Cashwell admitted that he realized in retrospect that he had only obtained manifestations of tongues, but he was "expecting the gift of tongues just as much as I expect to see Jesus." A reader, M. D. Sellers of Dunn, backed Cashwell's pleas for additional prayer, noting that it would be impossible to spread the gospel if Pentecostals had to learn every language first and expressing faith that if they tried a little harder Jesus would soon come. The PHC continued and greatly escalated its missionary outreach in subsequent years, but also made concessions by adopting more stringent requirements for its missionaries, utilizing translators, and sponsoring a more traditional approach to acquiring foreign languages.(34)

J.H. King met up with McIntosh when he visited Hong Kong in 1910, but it was the Garrs -- who had worked at the Oliver Gospel Mission and who joined the North Carolina PH Conference during the 1910's(35) -- who were instrumental in getting King to visit China and India.(36) Already in Hong Kong was Miss E. May Law who was on hand from 1908 through 1914 joining the PHC in 1910.(37) Also in Hong Kong from 1910-1913 for the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church was Mrs. Addell Harrison and her daughter Golden along with Almyra Aston(38) in addition to Miss Ollie Maw,(39) PHC member, who served from 1912-1915.

It is not possible to mention Hong Kong without noting the incredible accomplishments of Miss Anna M. Dean who arrived in Hong Kong in 1909. She organized a mission station later that year which exists today as the most profitable mission of its kind. Miss Dean, who remained in Hong Kong until her death in 1918, was joined in 1912 by her niece, Miss Anna Dean Cole who stayed until 1962.(40) Miss Jane Schermerhorn arrived in 1914. They were joined by the W.F. Turners in 1919.

Miss Della Gaines went to India in 1910 for the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church. The J.M. Turners would reach India in 1922. Miss Gaines was part of a travelling party that set sail with J.H. King, then General Overseer of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church.(41) Rev. A.B. Garr and his wife recommended that King should visit Pentecostal mission sites around the world. King left the Falcon Holiness School in January 1910 and got confirmation of his world mission tour while at Texas Holiness University. He wrote in The Bridegroom's Messenger:

God clearly and miraculously opened the way for me to go with Brother Britton
to Greenville, Texas. ... While there God gave me a message in tongues and the
full interpretation to the effect that I should leave, or begin to make preparation
to leave in the spring.(42)

During this trip (1911), King received independent missionaries already in India, namely Rev. R.E. Massey and Rev. D.S. McHaffey into the PHC.(43) Rev. King spent two years outside the United States trying to spread the gospel message. Henry C. King's 1912/13 stay in Liberia could have brought him into contact with Daniel Awrey.(44)

One of the earliest PHC missionaries to Africa was Kenneth E.M. Spooner, originally from the British West Indies. He and his wife arrived in South Africa in 1913. He remained there until his death in 1937 by which time he had established 60 churches. His wife, Mrs. Geraldine M. Spooner a native of Central America, would remain in Africa until her passing in her 90s.

1899: The Role of Women

The inaugural issue of Live Coals of Fire in 1899 listed female ordained evangelists and female ruling elders. Ms. Emma DeFriese served as principal of the School of the Prophets in Beniah, Tennessee when it opened in 1900. Sarah Payne served as corresponding editor of Live Coals, a role that included writing Sunday School lessons. F.M. Britton published support of women ministers in the Apostolic Evangel.(45) The original discipline of Crumpler's holiness organization explicitly stated that people of either gender could be called to the ministry, which was a divergence from Methodist doctrine. The PHC's first ordained woman, Bertha Maxwell, served as a minister from 1901 until 1919, when she returned to the laity. The PHC church formed in 1907 in G. F. Taylor's hometown of Falcon listed Taylor and two women among its eight original ordained ministers, and a substantial number of other women served in ministerial and evangelistic positions for the PHC. Women also easily constituted the majority of lay contributors to the various periodicals published and read by North Carolina Pentecostals, and laywomen filled other important roles. From its inception in 1904, the PHC's Foreign Mission Board was entirely made up of women, though when it was consolidated into the General Mission Board in 1913 only men were elected to it. Women served as foreign missionaries and in other capacities as well; for example, Mrs. E. A. Sexton was the associate editor of the Bridegroom's Messenger and took over as editor after Cashwell stepped down in 1908.(46)

1900: First PH Convention held in Fayetteville, NC

A.B. Crumpler elected president

Crumpler's desire to preach his view of Holiness again outweighed that of wanting to stay with the Methodist church so after a successful evangelistic campaign, he issued a call in the early part of 1900 for a meeting in Fayetteville, North Carolina to organize a new denomination. Some of the Goldsboro 1898 people were involved and the same name, Pentecostal Holiness Church, was chosen.

The first church was organized in Antioch, North Carolina, the second in Magnolia, North Carolina and the third and most important in early years was Goldsboro, North Carolina. It was the center of activity for the first seven years. It had a good size building (60x90) and its pastor was A.B. Crumpler who was also President of the Convention, and editor of the official paper.

The financial strain of the big building sent Crumpler to other churches raising money for Goldsboro. While he travelled, two consecutive preachers at Goldsboro preached hard on tobacco and divorce--at that time PHC restricted matters like these more for ministers than members--and before long the audience had diminished considerably. The outcome was that Quakers bought the building.(47)

Crumpler's new organization steadily grew, forming congregations in the small Piedmont communities south of Raleigh (34 by 1907) and holding yearly conventions. Other Methodist preachers switched their allegiance to the PHC, including prominent future leaders G.B. Cashwell, A.H. Butler, and George F. Taylor, who all joined in 1903. Divisive issues facing the new church were the continual opposition of area Methodists and internal disputes over tobacco and divorce regulations, as it sought to expand while remaining true to holiness ideals.

1900: Joseph Hillary King chosen as General Overseer

of Fire-Baptized Holiness Association

In 1900 the news broke that Irwin had been leading a double life. J.H. King, then Ruling Elder of Ontario and pastor of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Association local church in Toronto, came to Lincoln for the purpose of assuming the editorship of Live Coals of Fire. Irwin voluntarily gave up and disappeared from FBH ranks. He later emerged as an active Pentecostal, presumably with a second wife while his first wife was still living.(48)

King called for a meeting of the general council which convened in Olmitz, Iowa, June 30 through July 2, 1900. King at age 31 was chosen as General Overseer. As in the prior case of Irwin, the appointment was made "during good behavior, i.e. for life."(49)

1901: Word Pentecostal eliminated from name "Pentecostal Holiness"

The PHC convention which met in Magnolia, North Carolina in 1901 decided to change the name of the church. The problem was that many of the members wishing to save social embarrassment said simply "I am a member of the Pentecostal church" rather than including the word holiness. The official deletion of the word Pentecostal--opposed by Crumpler--was to insure that people were more straightforward about their commitment to holiness. In 1909 the word pentecostal was restored after embracing pentecostalism.

1901: Students in Topeka, KS baptized in the Holy Spirit

and speak in tongues

The first North American "classical pentecostals" in the modern sense appeared on the scene in 1901 in the city of Topeka, Kansas in a Bible school conducted by Charles Fox Parham, a holiness teacher and former Methodist pastor. In spite of controversy over the origins and timing of Parham's emphasis on xenolalia, various North American historians conclude that the movement began during the first days of 1901 just as the world entered the Twentieth Century. The first person to be baptized in the Holy Spirit accompanied by speaking in tongues was Agnes Ozman, one of Parham's Bible School students, who spoke in tongues on the very first day of the new century, January 1, 1901. According to J. Roswell Flower, the founding Secretary of the Assemblies of God, Ozman's experience was the "touch felt round the world," an event which " made the Pentecostal Movement of the Twentieth Century." Parham formulated the doctrine that tongues was the "Bible evidence" of the baptism in the Holy Spirit. He also taught that tongues was a supernatural impartation of human languages (xenolalia) for the purpose of world evangelization. Henceforth, he taught, missionaries need not study foreign languages since they would be able to preach in miraculous tongues all over the world. Armed with this new theology, Parham founded a church movement which he called the "Apostolic Faith" and began a whirlwind revival tour of the American middle west to promote his exciting new experience.

1906: Azusa Street Revival began under leadership of W.J. Seymour

G.B. Cashwell filled with Holy Spirit

The 1906 annual conference of the Pentecostal Holiness Church of North Carolina was notable for the absence of Gaston B. Cashwell, one of the leading evangelists and pastors in the new denomination since he left Methodism to join the new church in 1903. Crumpler, the leader of the conference, read a letter from Cashwell that greatly interested the delegates. In it he asked forgiveness from anyone he had offended and announced that he was going to Los Angeles "to seek for the baptism of the Holy Ghost."

For several months there had been great interest in the Azusa Street revival throughout the South because of the glowing eyewitness accounts by Frank Bartleman in the Way of Faith, a regional Holiness magazine. Cashwell was the only minister venturesome enough to take action. He decided to make the long journey to Los Angeles to find out for himself if this was indeed the new Pentecost they had been praying for and expecting for years. Trusting God to supply his needs, he bought a one-way train ticket to Los Angeles and traveled in the only suit he owned.

Once in Los Angeles, Cashwell went directly to the Azusa Street Mission. He was dismayed at what he saw. The pastor, William J. Seymour, was a black man, as were most of his worshippers. When blacks laid hands upon him to receive the baptism, he abruptly left the meeting confused and disappointed. That night, however, God dealt with his racial prejudices and gave him a love for blacks and a renewed hunger to be baptized in the Holy Spirit. The next night, at Cashwell's request, Seymour and several young blacks laid hands again on this Southern gentlemen, who was baptized in the Spirit and, according to his own account, spoke perfect German. Before Cashwell returned to North Carolina, Seymour and the Azusa faithful took up an offering and presented him with a new suit and enough money for the return journey.(50)

1907: Revival in Dunn, NC, led by G.B. Cashwell

Results in FBH and PHC Accepting Pentecost

Upon arriving in his hometown on Dunn, North Carolina, in December 1906, Cashwell immediately preached Pentecost in the local Holiness church. Interest was great that in the first week of January 1907 he rented a three-story tobacco warehouse near the railroad tracks in Dunn for a month-long Pentecost crusade, which became for the East Coast another Azusa Street.

Most of the ministers in the three largest area Holiness movements came by the scores hungry to receive their own "personal Pentecost." These churches included the Pentecostal Holiness Church, the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church and the Holiness Freewill Baptist Churches of the area. Overnight most of the ministers and churches in these groups were swept "lock, stock and barrel" into the Pentecostal movement.(51)

In October of 1907, Cashwell published the first issue of The Bridegroom's Messenger out of Atlanta, which he edited for one year before resigning to concentrate fully on his evangelistic efforts. The periodical was designed to spread the Pentecostal message as widely as possible with its mixture of sermons, editorials, and reader testimonies from across the Southeast and even the country by those who had experienced the manifestation of tongues. By 1909, Cashwell had left the PHC and later sought to distance himself from Pentecostalism, even rejoining the Methodist church before his death from a heart-attack in 1916. No satisfactory explanation for his defection exists.

Some have suggested that Cashwell was disappointed at not being at the helm of the PHC while Joseph Campbell describes Cashwell as being temperamental.(52) Even though Cashwell was willing to apologize, such a trait would have contributed to the fact that Crumpler had no confidence in Cashwell. Not to be discounted, however, is the fact that Cashwell faced disillusionment from failed pentecostal expectations. Leading the list would be the delayed Second Coming and the failure of promised permanent xenolalia. Campbell,(53) however, judges Crumpler to have been justified in his views because "though Mr. Cashwell was for a period mightily used of God ... (he) did grievously fail God and bring reproach on the cause of the full gospel of Pentecostal Holiness."

In Crumpler's absence, most of his preachers received the experience and accepted Cashwell's doctrine of the initial-evidence.(54) Cashwell's original campaign in Dunn led to attacks by Crumpler in the official paper, The Holiness Advocate. Two parties developed in the church: pentecostal and non-pentecostal. This was an issue in the 1907 annual meeting with Crumpler, the president, leading the attack against the Pentecostal faction and vice-president A.H. Butler defending them. Crumpler and Butler were both re-elected and the issue was put off for another year.

The climatic battle occurred at the 1908 convention which met in Dunn, North Carolina on November 26, 1908 in the Holiness Tabernacle. Crumpler who had been unanimously re-elected there finally brought the matter to a head by walking out of the convention. Only a small portion of the church supported him. He was soon back in the Methodist Church in Clinton, North Carolina where he lived the rest of his days as a layperson, occasionally speaking out for the cause of prohibition but never again in the cause of holiness.(55)

The convention ended with A.H. Butler as the president and the church totally in the hands of the pentecostal preacher. Cashwell was named Chairman of Committees to examine applications for the ministry and to revise the Discipline. Further, Cashwell's Bridegroom's Messenger was adopted as the official organ of this church until further arrangements. A pentecostal view of Spirit baptism was incorporated into the Articles of Faith in 1908. Church of God in Christ did so in 1907 whereas the Church of God (Cleveland) did not print this in their General Assembly minutes until 1913. It was November 25, 1909 at Falcon, North Carolina that the church changed back to its original name, the Pentecostal Holiness Church.

J.H. King,(56) General Overseer of the FBHC, learned about the Azusa St. Revival while in Canada from a friend, Rev. A.H. Argue who would come to make a substantial contribution to the Assemblies of God. Argue told him about the revival and gave him a copy of Seymour's The Apostolic Faith. King put it away for later reading.

The Fire Baptized reaction was mixed. There was excitement among many Fire-Baptized to hear Cashwell. Several members from King's Toccoa, Georgia congregation went to Dunn where they, along with several more Fire-Baptized people, received the pentecostal experience.

King did not go to the meeting but at some point in January spent 10 days fasting for divine guidance. Apparently some in his congregation had already accepted the initial-evidence doctrine before he returned to his church or at least spoke favorably of it, and it was not tongues-speech itself but the initial-evidence doctrine that troubled him. King withstood Cashwell personally in private as well as publically during his first three days at Toccoa. King felt that he had bested the new doctrine at each confrontation.(57)

King put together an issue of Live Coals prior to Cashwell's arrival at Toccoa which included an article written by J. Hudson Ballard that refuted the initial-evidence doctrine. Attention was drawn to passages in Acts which refer to tongues in connection with Spirit baptism while other passages do not. Further, the article notes that tongues-speech is not mentioned as an evidence in the Epistles. Tongues could not be the exclusive evidence since this would exclude an untold number of Christians throughout church history from the blessing. The article points out that the group mentioned most in connection with tongues, the Corinthians, were barely saved, and certainly unsanctified. Lastly, if the gift were for all Christians it would have been included in the lists of spiritual gifts in Romans 12:6 and Ephesians 4:11. The study concluded that tongues should be used privately, that the church needs unction for evangelism instead of tongues, and that love is the chief evidence of the grace of God.(58)

On February 14, King made a study of key New Testament Greek words and to his surprise, found that his anti initial-evidence arguments were not supported by either Acts or the best commentators that he had at hand, especially Dean Alford's Critical Notes on the New Testament and Adam Clarke's Commentary. He was particularly impressed with the thought that when Acts 8 says Simon Magus "saw" that the Greek term idon can mean also "hear" so here Simon Magus must have heard speaking in tongues. Although Dean Alford would not support the idea of initial-evidence Spirit baptism (especially involving permanent xenolalia), he did argue that both the Ephesian Pentecost and this episode in Samaria included speaking in tongues. With his arguments now brushed aside, King that night sought for and received the pentecostal baptism and spoke with other tongues on February 15, 1907.(59)

In the April, 1908 Anderson, South Carolina meeting of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church the denomination changed the Basis of Union to incorporate the doctrine of pentecost "according to its scriptural aspect."

The PHC considered Cashwell's paper to be its semi-official organ during its early years. PHC ministers G.F. Taylor and A.H. Butler served as corresponding editors and major contributors, as did leaders of other denominations, including J.H. King and A.J. Tomlinson. While Cashwell was barnstorming the South, Taylor and Butler took over the local leadership of the PHC and--working closely with King and his FBHC organization--conducted further revivals, opened a holiness school in Falcon, and eventually oversaw a formal merger of the PHC and the FBHC in 1911.(60)

PHC adopted the widespread view that the movement that started with Azusa to be the "latter rain," a comparative reference to the "early rain" found in the book of Acts, when the Holy Spirit fell on the apostles at the first Pentecost and they spoke in various languages. With an introduction by J.H. King, G.F. Taylor published the first extended theological defense of Pentecostalism in 1907, and both men stressed that Pentecostalism and its central doctrine of tongues was the next stage in the continual quest for a more spiritual Christian life. For Taylor, the tenets of Pentecostalism were so important that it was worth dividing the holiness movement; the "most pious and deeply spiritual people of the land" were seeking their Pentecost, while holiness preachers who were jealous of their loss of prestige fought against it. Taylor considered religious criticism of Pentecostalism to be misguided and based on an erroneous interpretation of the Bible, and he denounced and dismissed such critics as being unwitting allies of the devil. Taylor wrote that "God, in His mercy, has enabled me to see the unscriptural teachings . . . appearing in the prominent holiness papers and . . . pulpits," and he proceeded to refute them point by Scriptural point.(61)

Taylor's judgments echoed those rendered by Cashwell in his Bridegroom's Messenger editorials. Cashwell claimed that Pentecostals followed the truth that could not be disproved based on the Scriptures, and he argued that the new movement had shown the unbelief and insincerity of a number of holiness leaders. Concerning the holiness and Methodist ministers who opposed Pentecostalism, Cashwell responded: "It is awful how the devil will work to destroy the Word of God but he can't do it."(62)

1911: FBH and PHC merged in Falcon, NC

S.D. Page elected first general superintendent

On January 30, 1911, in the octagon-shaped Pentecostal Holiness Church building at Falcon, North Carolina, duly elected delegates met for the purpose of effecting a consolidation between the Pentecostal Holiness Church and the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church. Such was accomplished by the close of the following day. The name of the smaller church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, was accepted for the new union.(63)

By 1915 the Tabernacle Pentecostal Church consolidated with the Pentecostal Holiness Church. Holmes himself, his local church and his school did not merge with Pentecostal Holiness Church.(64) Holmes had attended the University of Edinburgh and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill eventually earning a master's degree.(65)

1917: Pentecostal Holiness Advocate launched

Advocate served as official voice of church until 1997

Founder of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Association, B.H. Irwin began publication of the Live Coals of Fire in 1899 from Iowa (ran 1899-1900). J.H. King took responsibility for this paper in 1900 and--with the help of A.E. Robinson--would resume publication from 1902-1906 under the name Live Coals. This was followed by the Apostolic Evangel which was published from 1909-1928.(66) Live Coals of Fire seemed never to stray from paying some attention to African Americans, particularly W.E. Fuller. Listed in all issues were two such ruling elders and various ordained ministers. A number of stories highlight specific contributions by African Americans which, more often than not, were in the Southeast.

The Holiness Advocate in Clinton, North Carolina had a successful run from 1901 to 1908, the handiwork of Abner Blackman Crumpler which ended with his unceremonious exit from the Pentecostal Holiness Church. In response to criticism, Crumpler wrote an article titled "The Church of the Holy Refrigerator." In it he quoted Methodist Episcopal Church Bishop Candler's remarks in which he ridiculed "perfect love" while "theatre-going, card-playing, godless church members showed their approval by laughing aloud, and to think Mr. Candler gets paid $3,500 per year to fight holiness."(67) Through his paper, the PHC leader criticized the excessive emotionalism of Pentecostal revivals and argued against the idea that tongues were essential to the baptismal experience, insisting instead that tongues-speech was just one of many gifts of the Spirit that could accompany baptism. But Crumpler was fighting a losing battle. In the same May 15, 1907, issue of the Holiness Advocate in which he unconditionally attacked the new doctrine, over a dozen testimonies from holiness people who had obtained or hoped soon to receive the tongues experience appeared, including one that scolded Crumpler for helping Satan and hurting God's work by denying the essentiality of tongues.

The Way of Faith founded in Columbia, South Carolina in 1895 provided a valuable platform for various Fire-Baptized Holiness and Pentecostal Holiness ministers. The Way of Faith is currently published by the Oliver Gospel Mission which once counted R.B. Hayes among its workers and presently serves as a homeless shelter and is led by a dynamic charismatic Baptist woman. Published in Way of Faith by 1895, B.H. Irwin constructed the doctrine of a "third blessing" for those who had already been sanctified. This was the baptism of the Holy Ghost and with fire, or simply the baptism of fire. This would be the enduement of power from on high through the Holy Spirit.(68) During the Azusa St. Revival it was Bartleman's 1906 reports in Pike's Way of Faith where Crumpler learned of the Pentecostal mission. A North Carolina holiness preacher in Crumpler's church, Gaston Barnabas Cashwell, traveled to Los Angeles and obtained the Pentecostal experience first-hand. The North Carolina revival that Cashwell initiated upon his return in the first days of 1907 quickly spread in the Southeast, while every major holiness denomination and most of their individual leaders and laypersons soon entered the Pentecostal fold. The Church of God in Christ took its cue from Charles H. Mason personally went to the Azusa St. Revival.

A number of religious groups from across the country, and especially the holiness congregations of the South, followed the Azusa St. Revival with great interest, mainly through reports in the Apostolic Faith, W.J. Seymour's paper, which printed reports by Cashwell on the explosion of Pentecost in the Southeast. This is the same magazine which A.H. Argue passed on to J.H. King in Canada.

Having direct exposure to the Azusa St. Revival led G.B. Cashwell, who came out of Crumpler's congregation, to produce the Bridegroom's Messenger from 1907 until 1909, edited by Mrs. A.E. Sexton. This magazine is currently published by Beulah Heights Bible College in Atlanta, Georgia. In October of 1907, Cashwell published the first issue of The Bridegroom's Messenger out of Atlanta, which he edited for one year before resigning to concentrate fully on his evangelistic efforts. Cashwell's Bridegroom's Messenger was adopted as the official organ of this church until further arrangements. The periodical was designed to spread the Pentecostal message as widely as possible with its mixture of sermons, editorials, and reader testimonies from across the Southeast and even the country by those who had experienced the manifestation of tongues. Cashwell claimed that Pentecostals followed the truth that could not be disproved based on the Scriptures, and he argued that the new movement had shown the unbelief and insincerity of a number of Holiness leaders. Cashwell told readers of Bridegroom's Messenger that tongues constituted the evidence of the Holy Spirit that made "your calling and election sure."(69) In a letter to Azusa published in The Apostolic Faith, Cashwell rejoiced that "He is coming soon, and the bride must be dressed and ready. . . . Heaven seems nearer every day. I hear the music. I see the city. Glory be to God." Cashwell also reported that an angel had told a fellow Pentecostal whom he considered trustworthy that "it will not be long." In the inaugural issue of his paper, Cashwell announced that his goal was for God to announce on the day of judgment that the Bridegroom's Messenger had warned the world to be prepared for Christ's return. By 1909, Cashwell had left the PHC and later sought to distance himself from Pentecostalism, even rejoining the Methodist church before his death from a heart-attack in 1916.

Founding editor G.F. Taylor started the Pentecostal Holiness Advocate which ran from 1917 until 1997. The was the first official organ of the PHC as consolidated in 1911.

1919: G.F. Taylor founded Frank Springs Institute

Emmanuel College in 1933

Emmanuel College opened in 1919 as the Franklin Springs Institute with G.F. Taylor, principal, launching the High School Academy with "higher-level Bible courses" for ministerial students. Under the leadership of T.L. Aaron, the institute was rebuilt after having been closed for two years. The Junior College and Academy--which would adopt the name Emmanuel in 1939--saw new faculty, new campus, new buildings, and new college curriculum. President Drum's tenure (1951-1969) saw the accreditation of the Junior College by the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges in 1967 which accounted for the phasing out of the high school. The four year program was fully accredited in 1991 under the leadership of current President Dr. David Hopkins.

1943: National Association of Evangelicals Organized

with PHC as a charter member

For many decades there was little contact between the various American Pentecostal bodies except by ministers who transferred from one denomination to another. However, there were cases of proselytism and "sheep stealing" that caused unpleasant feelings between the various groups. This began to change during the dark days of World War II when the first steps were taken to bring Pentecostals into fellowship with each other.

The first contacts were made in 1943 in the lobbies of the newly formed National Association of Evangelicals. Several Pentecostal bodies served as charter members of this group which was drawn together by the emergency situation brought about by the war. The Pentecostal Holiness Church was one of these groups.

1947: Southwestern College founded in Oklahoma City

R.O. Corvin president

Early in 1900, the Fire-Baptized Holiness Association established a School of the Prophets in Beniah, Tennessee. Sister Emma DeFriese described in Live Coals of Fire 1:10 (Jan 12, 1900) as having the "definite experiences of the fire and the dynamite" served as principal of the school. G.F. Taylor led the Bethel Holiness School in Rose, Hill, North Carolina from 1903 until 1907 when he left to head up the Falcon Holiness School (1907-1916) which had started in 1902. In 1906, the Beulah Holiness Bible School was established in Oklahoma, where Daniel Awrey would serve as principal. Beulah would remain open until 1910 and be followed by the short lived King's College in Oklahoma which operated from 1925 until 1932. About the same time there were similar attempts to run the Ozark Industrial College in Arkansas (1928-1931), the Triangle Industrial College (1932), and Emmanuel College of Milford, Texas (1932).(70)

The Altamont Bible and Missionary Institute opened its doors in 1898 making "Holmes" [as it is affectionately called] the oldest, continuous Pentecostal Bible college in North America. The school operated then as it does now on the "faith principle," meaning students are not charged tuition.

Oklahoma City gave birth to Southwestern College of Christian Ministry in 1946 under the leadership of Dr. R.O. Corvin. During the tenure (1961-75) of Dr. W.B. Corvin as president, Southwestern achieved a record enrollment of 1600.(71) Additional land was purchased, buildings were erected and the junior college achieved accreditation in 1964 at which time the high school division was phased out. Today the school is enjoying the benefit of the steady leadership of President Ron Moore.

Southwestern College of Christian Ministry developed the first IPHC graduate program when in 1993 Dean Garnet Pike established programs with active church leaders in mind. Accredited modulars of one week on campus permit church leaders to manage heavy church demands while allowing Dean Pike to bring in a range of qualified instructors.

1948: Eight Groups, including PHC formed

Pentecostal Fellowship of North America (PFNA)

By 1948, several Pentecostal groups formed the Pentecostal Fellowship of North America in Des Moines, Iowa. Preliminary to this organization was a rally in Washington, D.C., where plans for a constitution were formulated. Leading figures in this meeting were Bishop Synan, who helped formulate the constitution, and Oral Roberts who preached in the final public rally. From those early days, the Pentecostal Holiness Church has taken a leading role in the PFNA meetings as well as the World Pentecostal Conferences that have met every three years since 1947.

1967: Affiliation signed with Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile

In the 1960s the Pentecostal Holiness Church began to branch out beyond the United States by affiliating with sister Pentecostal bodies in the Third World. This was done in addition to its traditional world mission efforts. In 1967 an affiliation was formed with the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile, one of the largest national Pentecostal churches in the world. At the time, the Jotabeche Pentecostal Methodist congregation was the largest church in the world with over 60,000 members.

Today this congregation is in second place despite the fact that it has grown to number 150,000 members. In 1985 the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile claimed no less than 1.2 million members and adherents.

1974: International Headquarters moved from

Franklin Springs, GA, to Oklahoma City

The church headquarters since 1974 has been located in Oklahoma City where the denomination has more congregations than any other city in the world.

1988: Target 2000 adopted

Affiliation signed with Wesleyan Methodist Church of Brazil

The leadership of the church is looking toward the last years of the century as the time of the greatest growth and evangelization in its history. In 1985 a program known as Target 2000 was launched. The goal of this program is for the church to be able to claim one-tenth of one percent of the world population for Jesus Christ by the end of the century. This would mean a church of 6.5 million members by the year 2000. To achieve this goal, new churches are being opened in world class cities in the United States and other nations each year.

An affiliation was forged with the Wesleyan Methodist Church of Brazil in 1983. A Neo-Pentecostal body with roots in the Brazilian Methodist Church, the Wesleyan Church numbered some 50,000 members and adherents in 1985.

For many decades the Pentecostal Holiness Church was a church that spoke with a Southern accent and was largely a rural denomination ministering in the South and the Midwest. It now wishes to minister and preach the gospel in all the languages and accents of the world.

1. See Vinson Synan, The Old-Time Power: A History of the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Springs: Advocate Press, 1986) chapter 1. Hereinafter identified as OTP.

2. Synan, OTP, 81f.

3. John Fletcher, The Works of John Fletcher, 4 vols (Salem, Ohio: Schmul Publishers, 1974) vol 2: Checks to Antinomianism, p. 632.

4. Donald W. Dayton, Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Grand Rapids: Francis Asbury Press, 1987) 97f, 110n41. Synan, OTP, 83, 92.

5. J.H. King, "History of Fire-Baptized Church: Chapter II," Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (March 3, 1921) 11. A number of North Americans are listed in Harold D. Hunter, Spirit Baptism: A Pentecostal Alternative (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983) chapter 6. See: Craig Fankhauser, "The Heritage of Faith: An Historical Evaluation of the Holiness Movement in America," unpublished M.A. Thesis (Pittsburgh [Kansas] State University, 1983) 121f; Dayton, Roots, 96, 110.

6. Synan, OTP, 85. Holiness periodicals like Beulah Christian labeled this "erroneous teaching." See Beulah Christian 5:5 (May 1896) 3; Beulah Christian (Nov 1896) 2.

7. See Joseph E. Campbell, The Pentecostal Holiness Church: 1898-1948 (Franklin Springs, GA: Publishing House of the Pentecostal Holiness Church, 1951) 197-199. Hereinafter identified as PHC.

8. Campbell, PHC, 194.

9. Campbell, PHC, 199.

10. See "The Central Idea," Live Coals of Fire 1:6 (Nov 10, 1899) 4. cf. Synan, OTP, 89; Fankhauser, "The Heritage of Faith," 133.

11. Synan, OTP, 93. See G.F. Taylor, "Our Church History: Chapter III," Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (February 3, 1921) 9; G.B. Cashwell, "Hundreds Baptized in the South," The Apostolic Faith 1:6 (February-March 1907) 3.

12. J.H. King, "History of Pentecostal Holiness Church," (1946) 5-12, 21. See the series by G.F. Taylor in Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (March-April 1921). Also: Live Coals of Fire 1:6 (Nov 10, 1899) 8; Coals 1:9 (Dec 29, 1899) 2. Probably not connected is the reference to Mr. & Mrs. Tuttle of Lawrence, Kansas in Sarah E. Parham, The Life of Charles F. Parham (Birmingham: Commercial Printing, [1930] 1977) 25f, and Mrs. Victoria Tuttle, the ruling elder of the Pennsylvania Fire-Baptized.

13. "A Sermon by Chas. F. Parham," The Apostolic Faith 31 (April 1925) 3; James R. Goff, Jr., Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1988) 54f; James R. Goff, Jr., "Initial Tongues in the Theology of Charles Fox Parham," Initial Evidence, ed. by Gary M. McGee (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991) 62; Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Holiness Movement, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971) 68; Synan, OTP, 92.

14. Agnes Ozman LaBerge, What God Hath Wrought (Chicago: Herald Publishing Co., n.d.) 22f; William Menzies, "Fire-Baptized Holiness Movement," Dictionary of Christianity in America (Downer's Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1991) 440; Edith Blumhofer, Restoring The Faith (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993) 48-53. "History of [Pentecostal] Movement," The Apostolic Faith 2:2 (Oct 1908) Houston, Texas, p. 2, adds that at her Spirit baptism on January 1, 1901 she did not think tongues was the only evidence of Spirit baptism. Campbell, PHC, 208-214, notes that Agnes Ozman LeBerge and her husband became active members of the Fire Baptized Holiness Church, she serving as "pastor and evangelist."

Daniel Awrey's 7,100 mile trip reported in Live Coals of Fire 1:7 (Dec 1, 1899) 5, noted twice hearing Dr. Dowie in Chicago. Chronicling travels in 1907, Frank Bartleman's How Pentecost Came to Los Angeles (1925) 106, told of a stop in Old Orchard, Maine. This annual Christian and Missionary Alliance camp meeting was said to be opposed to "Pentecost," yet several left the camp to hear Bartleman. cf. Michael Thomas Girolimon, "A Real Crisis of Blessing: Part 1," Paraclete 27:1 (Winter, 1992) 21; Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith, 48; James E. Peters, Prevailing Westerlies (Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image, 1988) 19f.

15. The Discipline of The Holiness Church (Goldsboro, NC: Nash Brothers, [c. 1902]) 3.

16. Vinson Synan, "Pentecostal Holiness Church," Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, ed. by Samuel S. Hill (Macon: Mercer University Press, 1984) 582, erroneously records the date as 1893. See: Synan, OTP, 60; Campbell, PHC, 221; A.D. Beacham, Jr., A Brief History of the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Springs, GA: Advocate Press, 1983) 35.

17. Synan, OTP, 61.

18. Campbell, PHC, 221. Cf. Synan, OTP, 5f; Beachman, Brief History, 33; W. Eddie Morris, The Vine and Branches - John 15:5: Historic Events of the Holiness and Pentecostal Movements (by the author, 1981) 7.

19. Campbell, PHC, 222.

20. Campbell, PHC, 223.

21. Synan, OTP, 62f; Beacham, Brief History, 36.

22. B.H. Irwin preached a sermon on "The Pentecostal Church" which was printed in Live Coals of Fire 1:20 (June 1, 1900) 2f. Most notable is the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene founded by Phineas F. Bresee. See also articles like "The Pentecostal Mission Convention" by O.A. Barber in Living Waters 13:42 (October 22, 1903). Cf. Synan, OTP, 64; Harold D. Hunter, "Aspects of Pentecostal-Charismatic Origins," Section II, class lectures at the Church of God School of Theology and Oral Roberts University School of Theology.

23. Bridegroom's Messenger (March 1, 1908) 1; April 15, 1908, 2.

24. Campbell, 375.

25. Campbell, 375.

26. Live Coals of Fire, p. 6

27. Ethel E. Goss' The Winds of God (Southfield, Michigan: Ruth Goss Nortje', 1977) 254.

28. The Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (February 24, 1921) 9 cited by Stan York, p. 8f.

29. At least 1905 and 1906.

30. G.F. Taylor, "Our Church History: Chapter XI," 8, says that the Bradleys did not join the PHC until 1912. He later mentions that they returned to the states in 1918 and at the time of his writing (1921) they had not been sent back to Central America. That means sponsorship, it does not necessarily mean they did not return.

31. Bradley died in Central America. He and his wife joined the PHC in 1912. So King in Advocate (April 7, 1921).

32. Agnes Ozman claimed to have spoken Chinese on January 1, 1901 and the A.G. Garrs left the Azusa St. Revival for China. The Bridegroom's Messenger ran stories of the Garrs and McIntoshs working together in China. Such stories can be multiplied.

33. "Colleges vs Gifts of the Spirit," The Bridegroom's Messenger 1:1 (October 1, 1907) 1.

34. Bridegroom's Messenger (Feb 15, 1908) 1, 4; April 1, 1908, p. 1; April 15, 1908, p. 1; Campbell, PHC, 347-359.

35. So e-mail from Vinson Synan, 6/25/97.

36. Joseph Campbell, PHC, 347.

37. G.F. Taylor, "Our Church History: Chapter XI," Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (April 7, 1921) 8, says that King took her in during his tour in India. This would suggest she was actually received in 1910. Taylor goes on to say that the North Carolina Conference sent her money in 1911.

38. G.F. Taylor, "Our Church History: Chapter XI: Foreign Missions," Advocate 4: 49(April 7, 1921) 8. Sister Aston received money from the PHC board, but declared she would rather remain independent of the board.

39. Taylor, "Our Church History: Chapel XI," 8, says that Miss May Law returned to the States in the spring of 1912 and when she returned in the fall of 1912 she took with her Miss Ollie Maw of South Carolina. Maw was a member of PHC and endorsed by the Georgia and Upper South Carolina Convention. Later (1914?), Miss Law adopted the "finished work theory" and "the one name baptism, or Unitarianism."

40. There was another source that confused me on this, but Taylor in "Our China Work, PH Advocate (Nov 11, 1920) puts Anna Deane Cole as being Spirit baptized in Birmingham in 1907 and wanting to leave for China immediately. However, she went to Holmes first then to China in 1911 (Taylor "thinks") and remained 7 years. She was a member of the Tabernacle Church but was part of the 1915 consolidation in to PHC. She was getting ready to return in 1921.

41. King was not General Overseer during this tour. Britton was made Acting General Overseer. So Campbell, PHC, 253.

42. The Bridegroom's Messenger (March 15, 1910) 2 quoted in Stan York, p. 12.

43. So G.F. Taylor, "Our Church History: Chapter XI," PH Advocate (April 7, 1921) 8.

44. John W. Brooks, Mighty Moments, says that King got very ill after a "short stay in the topics and was helped onto the ship to return to the United States."

45. Coals 1:10 (Jan 12, 1900). See King's flattering appraisal of Sarah Payne in Yet Speaketh, 110.

46. Campbell, PHC, 227, 233, 238, 247f, 262; V. Mayo Bundy, ed., A History of Falcon, North Carolina (Charlotte: Herb Eaton Historical Publications, 1986) 7f; Bridegroom's Messenger (Nov 1, 1907) 1; June 1, 1908, p. 2. For the adventures of PHC minister Martha Edna Virden, see Annie Sue Virden, Laid Up Treasures: Life of Mrs. M. E. Virden (Franklin Springs: PHC Publishing House, 1939).

47. Campbell, PHC, 230f.

48. The precise nature of Irwin's indiscretion is not often repeated, but C.E. Jones, "Benjamin Hardin Irwin," Dictionary of Christianity in America, 583, passes on the 1900 announcement by H.C. Morrison in his Pentecostal Herald that Irwin had been seen on an Omaha street drunk and smoking a cigar. This was followed by divorce and a marriage to a young woman. J.H. King, "Pentecostal Holiness Church," 23, lamented that an alluring woman had tempted Irwin. King wrote in 1921, "History of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church: Chapter III," Pentecostal Holiness Advocate 4:49 (April 7, 1921) 10, that Irwin gave evidence of "an apostate condition of heart" in 1899 and that in the spring of 1900 he was "guilty of open and gross sins." Evidence about a pentecostal episode in Irwin's life is found in The Apostolic Faith 1:6 (February-March, 1907) 1, and The Apostolic Faith (February 1911) 4, edited by E.N. Bell along with a letter from Irwin to Barrett republished by David Bundy in "Spiritual Advice to a Seeker: Letters to T.B. Barratt from Azusa St, 1906," Pneuma 14:2 (Fall, 1992) 160, 167f. See Fankhauser, "The Heritage of Faith," for information about the death of Mrs. Anna M. Stewart Irwin in 1919. When trying to purge the Pentecostal Holiness Church of "Irwinism," King, "Unity," Pentecostal Holiness Advocate (August 3, 1922) 5f, said of Irwin:

His life for many years alternated between the pulpit and

the harlots house. He would go from the pulpit to wallow

with harlots the rest of the night. During this time he

was preaching fiercely against wearing neckties, eating

pork, and drinking coffee.

This last reference was located by Dan Woods.

49. Synan, OTP, 95.

50. Vinson Synan, "Whence the Pentecostal Holiness Church?" Legacy 1 (1996).

51. Vinson Synan, "Whence the Pentecostal Holiness Church? Legacy 1 (1996).

52. Campbell, PHC, 241; Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal Movement, 138f.

53. Campbell, PHC, 241.

54. Synan, OTP, 111.

55. Synan, OTP, 119; Campbell, PHC, 245. These developments parallel events in the Church of God in Christ involving C.P. Jones and Charles H. Mason.

56. King, "My Experience;" J.H. King, and Blanche L. King, Yet Speaketh: Memoirs of the Late Bishop Joseph H. King (Franklin Springs, GA: Publishing House of the Pentecostal Holiness Church, 1949) 112; Synan, OTP, 112.

57. King, "My Experience," 13.

58. J.H. Ballard, "Spiritual Gifts with Special Reference to the Gift of Tongues," Live Coals (Feb 13, 1907) 2, 6.

59. Synan, OTP, 112f. Taylor, The Spirit and the Bride, noting that King quoted Dean Alford in The Apostolic Evangel goes on to point out that Alford was "not trying to prove" initial-evidence Spirit baptism.

60. Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal Movement, 129

61. G.F. Taylor, The Spirit and the Bride (Falcon, NC: 1907) 5-9, 40-49, 90-99. Notice the appropriation of Taylor's book by D. William Faupel in The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996). In their autobiographical accounts, King, Tomlinson, Cashwell, and Taylor all stressed that they accepted the doctrine of tongues only after a examination of the Bible confirmed it.

62. Cashwell editorials in the Bridegroom's Messenger, Dec. 15, 1907, Jan. 1, 1908, Dec. 1, 1907.

63. Pentecostal Holiness Church Manual: 1973 (Franklin Springs, GA: Advocate Press, n.d.) 13; Synan, OTP, 131.

64. Synan, OTP, 136.

65. Grant Wacker, "A Profile of American Pentecostalism," Pastoral Problems in the Pentecostal-Charismatic Movement, ed. by Harold D. Hunter (Cleveland, TN: Society for Pentecostal Studies, November 3-5, 1983) 18.

66. Campbell, PHC 529.

67. Campbell, PHC, 223.

68. Donald W. Dayton, Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Grand Rapids: Francis Asbury Press, 1987) 97f, 110n41. Synan, OTP, 83, 92.

69. Holiness Advocate 7:3 (May 15, 1907) 2, 6; Apostolic Evangel 1:7 (May 15, 1909) 2; Bridegroom's Messenger (Jan 15, 1908) 1.

70. Campbell, 507f.

71. Undated history of Southwestern, p. 3.